Health Benefits of Gotu Kola for Hepatitis, Asthma, Epilepsy and More
Gotu kola is an ancient plant medicine used for thousands of years for a number of disorders. Now we find clear scientific evidence for at least a dozen medical benefits of Centellaasiatica.
Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) has a long and successful history of use in traditional medicines. Traditional uses for Gotu kola have included:
• Gastrointestinal conditions
• Varicose veins
• Skin irritation
And this is just the short list. Gotu kola has been a “go to” herb for herbal practitioners in Ayurveda, Chinese Traditional Medicine, Kampo Medicine (Japan), Thai Traditional Medicine, Indonesian Traditional Medicine, Hawaiian Traditional Medicine and many others.
Some of the above traditional uses for Gotu kola have been proven out in clinical research. Some have yet to be proven out. In this article, we’ll discuss twelve medicinal uses for Gotu kola that have proven out in human clinical research.
Other names for Gotu kola
Among these various traditions, Gotu kola is also referred to as Kaki kuda, Gagan-gagan, Brahmi, Brahmi-buti, Panegowan, Hydrocotyle, Tungke-tunfke, Calingan rambat, Centella, Kerok batok, Tete karo, Kos tekosan, Thankuni, Lui gong gen, Pagaga, Tsubo-kusa, Puhe beta, Tete kadho, Papaiduh, Tungchian, Pegagan and Idrocotyle. Gotu kola has also been referred to as Marsh penny, Water pennyrot, Sheep rot and Indian pennywort.
About the Centella asiatica plant
This wonderful herb grows profusely throughout Asia, Africa, Indonesia, South Pacific Islands and in tropical regions of Australia and New Zealand. It is a small, ground-creeping vine that will also grow over stumps and up trees if given enough moisture.
The leaves are mostly used as medicine. These small heart-shaped leaves can readily be eaten raw. They have a crisp, tangy taste. For medicinal uses, Gotu kola is often concentrated and extracted and put into topical creams or oral herbal supplements.
1. Skin burns and wounds
In a 2017 study published in the journal, Medicine, researchers tested a cream made from Centella asiatica on 75 skin burn patients. The doctors split the patients into two groups. One group was treated with sulfadiazine cream (conventional treatment), topically applied. The other group was treated with a topical cream made of C. asiatica.
The doctors found that healing was significantly faster among the Gotu kola group compared to the sulfadiazine group. This effect was seen within three days of the beginning of treatment. The researchers also found that pain levels (using the VAS scores) were significantly less among the C. asiatica group.
A number of studies have shown increased wound healing and skin health from topical application of Gotu kola.
For example, a 2012 study from Korea found that C. asiatica helped protect the skin from damaging effects of too much UVB radiation from the sun.
A 2011 study from Thailand’s Thammasat University found that Gotu kola significantly protected the skin against several types of bacteria infections. These included Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Other studies have found that Gotu kola significantly increases wound healing in general.
Gotu kola can also help stretch marks. A multicenter 2013 study from Spanish hospitals found that a cream containing Gotu kola reduced stretchmarks better than a placebo cream.
Multiple studies have confirmed that C. asiatica can be used to treat eczema (atopic dermatitis). A 2015 study of 360 eczema patients treated with either placebo or a C. asiatica cream. The cream also included walnut and turmeric. The treatment period was three months.
The treatments with the Gotu kola formula resulted in reduced itching, scaling, redness, pain, and other symptoms compared to the placebo group.
A 2007 study from Germany tested 88 patients with eczema. They gave patients either a base cream (placebo) or a cream containing C. asiatica along with Mahonia aquifolium and Viola tricolor.
The researchers found the Gotu kola effective for cold and dry weather conditions.
3. Varicose veins
A number of studies have investigated C. asiatica’s ability to treat and reduce varicose veins. Many of these have been combined with studies on venous irregularities, discussed below.
A 1990 study from the University of Naples treated varicose vein patients with a topical cream of Gotu kola extract. They found the treatment improved the metabolism of the blood vessel walls, and improved varicose vein symptoms.
4. Venous insufficiency and hypertension
A series of studies from Italy tested a number of patients with venous insufficiency. They found internal supplementation of a total triterpenic fraction of Gotu kola for 6 weeks to two months significantly improved their symptoms.
A 1987 study of 94 patients with venous insufficiency also tested Gotu kola extract against a placebo. Venous insufficiency significantly decreased among the C. asiatica treatment group, while the issue became worse for the placebo group.
Venous hypertension has also been reduced using Gotu kola. A 2001 study from the UK’s Imperial College in London tested 40 patients with this condition. They gave patients between 60 milligrams and 120 milligrams daily of a total triterpenic fraction of Gotu kola.
The Gotu kola resulted in significant improvements among their blood vessels. These included flowmetry and PO2-PCO2 measures.
5. Ankle swelling or edema
Most of the above studies also found swelling or edema levels also significantly reduced. Other studies have found similar results. Another 2001 study from the Imperial College tested another 62 patients with edema in the form of ankle swelling.
After four weeks of treatment with either placebo or the Gotu kola, the researchers found the C. asiatica significantly reduced ankle edema (using the AET – ankle edema tester). The researchers found that 180 milligrams a day of the extract was the most effective.
A 1990 study from Italy’s D’Annunzio University tested 50 patients with ankle edema. They were given a C. asiatica extract or placebo. The researchers found the edema significantly improved among the Gotu kola treatment group.
Another study tested ankle edema resulting from diabetes. In this 12-month study, the researchers found the Gotu kola supplement decreased ankle swelling by an average of 28 percent among the patients.
Another study tested ankle swelling in flights. Again, the C. asiatica supplements significantly reduced ankle swelling among airline flyers.
Atherosclerosis is the build up of plaque within the blood vessels. This can lead to strokes and heart attacks, as bits of plaque are released into the bloodstream. Blockages of plaque within micro-capillaries is a common cause for stroke.
Researchers from the UK tested tested 50 patients who had a build up of artery plaque. The doctors gave the patients either 180 milligrams of a total triterpenic extract of Centella asiatica or conventional treatment. After one year of treatment, the researchers found the C. asiatica treatment helped stabilize the plaques. They became less likely to break off. The doctors concluded:
“These observations indicate a positive action of TTFCA [Gotu kola extract] on the stabilization of hypoechoic, low-density femoral plaques.”
The same researchers also tested for carotid artery plaque among a group of patients. Again, they found the Gotu kola resulted in more stabilized plaques among the carotid arteries of the patients. This of course, reduced their risk of stroke.
A 2015 study from Italy’s G. D’Annunzio University tested 1,363 people. They gave them a combination treatment of Pycnogenol and C. asiatica extract or placebo over a 30 month period. The research found the combination reduced their development of atherosclerosis.
7. Periodontal disease
A 2003 study from Mahidol University in Thailand tested 20 patients with periodontal disease. After having their teeth cleaned, the patients were given treatments in the form of chips with Gotu kola and pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts.
After three months and six months, the patients treated with the C. asiatica combination had significantly healthier gums and reduced periodontal disease.
Other research has found that applying topical patches containing Gotu kola to the gums can significantly gingivitis symptoms.
8. Improved cognition and moods
Research also finds that Gotu kola increases cognition and betters moods. Researchers from Khon Kaen University in Thailand studied 28 healthy elderly people. They were given either a placebo or Gotu kola extract ranging from 250 milligrams to 750 milligrams per day for two months.
The researchers found the C. asiatica group had significantly better memory and self-rated mood scores compared to the placebo group.
The researchers concluded:
“Therefore, the present findings suggest the potential of Centella asiatica to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in the healthy elderly.”
Gotu kola may also help prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
A 2015 laboratory study from the Oregon Health and Science University found that C. asiatica halted the process of amyloid beta development among brain cells. A 2014 study from the same researchers found it was Gotu kola’s caffeoylquinic acid content that seemed to ameliorate A-beta plaque.
9. Ulcers and lymph draining
C. asiatica has a reputation for being a purifying compound. This was proven in a 2009 study from Italy’s University of Rome. The researchers tested 80 patients at various medical centers that had phlebostatic sores – also referred to as phlebitis ulcers.
Half of the patients were treated with a cream that contained Gotu kola. The doctors found the cream sped up the healing times. It also increased the lymph drainage of the patients.
This, of course, brings up the notion of gastric ulcers. A number of laboratory studies have indicated that Gotu kola has a healing effect upon stomach ulcers. This, however, has not been confirmed in human studies.
10. Blood health
Lymph draining also indicates that Gotu kola is blood purifying as well. This has also been discovered independently. A 1990 study tested the blood of healthy people before and after dosing with Gotu kola.
They found that the Gotu kola significantly increased the blood’s pharmacokinetics – indicating increased delivery and clearance of drugs and nutrients.
Traditional medicine used Gotu kola for anxiety. This has been confirmed in the research.
Researchers from the University of Ottawa in Canada tested 40 healthy people. They were given 12 grams of dried C. asiatica to eat or a placebo. The researchers then monitored their acoustic startle response rate (ASR) after 30 minutes and an hour.
The researchers found the Gotu kola significantly reduced the ASR. This indicated to the researchers the ability of C. asiatica’s anti-anxiety effect. Studies with rats have also concluded this effect as well.
A 2010 study from India’s JB Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College tested 33 adults with generalized anxiety disorder. After sixty days of treatment, the researchers found that a Gotu kola extract significantly reduced anxiety-related conditions. These included increased cognition and decreased stress.
12. Liver disease
Several studies have confirmed that C. asiatica can significantly improve liver health. In one study, Gotu kola was found the help protect liver cells from oxidation. It also made the liver cells stronger against other injury.
Another study showed that Gotu kola inhibited cancer growth among liver cells.
While it has not been studied at length in human there is some evidence that Gotu koma may also be helpful for hepatitis. A 1979 French study found it helped 5 out of 12 patients.
Constituents of Gotu kola
There will certainly be more medical benefits found as researchers continue their discovery of this ancient medicine. Why is this one herb so helpful?
Because of its wealth of medicinal compounds. Research has indicated that Gotu kola contains, among others, pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, collectively known as centelloids. The terpenoids in Gotu kola include asiatic acid, brahmic acid, centellic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, asiaticoside A, asiaticoside B, centelloside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, sceffoleoside and centellose.
These triterpenoids in Gotu kola are considered phytoanticipins because of their anti-bacterial nature. They interfere with the growth of viral and bacterial infection. They also produce a number of metabolites in the body that alter the body’s metabolism for the better.
Centella asiatica also contains a host of nutrients, including calcium, potassium, iron, beta carotene, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin.
Saeidinia A, Keihanian F, Lashkari AP, Lahiji HG, Mobayyen M, Heidarzade A, Golchai J. Partial-thickness burn wounds healing by topical treatment: A randomized controlled comparison between silver sulfadiazine and centiderm. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Mar;96(9):e6168. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006168.
Khiljee S, Rehman N, Khiljee T, Loebenberg R, Ahmad RS. Formulation and clinical evaluation of topical dosage forms of Indian Penny Wort, walnut and turmeric in eczema. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015 Nov;28(6):2001-7.
Forte R, Cennamo G, Bonavolontà P, Pascotto A, de Crecchio G, Cennamo G. Long-term follow-up of oral administration of flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for diabetic cystoid macular edema without macular thickening. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Oct;29(8):733-7. doi: 10.1089/jop.2013.0010.
Kircik LH. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of a unique topical scar product vs white petrolatum following shave biopsies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Jan;12(1):86-90.
Arpaia MR, Ferrone R, Amitrano M, Nappo C, Leonardo G, del Guercio R. Effects of Centella asiatica extract on mucopolysaccharide metabolism in subjects with varicose veins. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10(4):229-33.
García Hernández JÁ, Madera González D, Padilla Castillo M, Figueras Falcón T. Use of a specific anti-stretch mark cream for preventing or reducing the severity of striae gravidarum. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013 Jun;35(3):233-7. doi: 10.1111/ics.12029.
Samuels N, Saffer A, Wexler ID, Oberbaum M. Localized reduction of gingival inflammation using site-specific therapy with a topical gingival patch. J Clin Dent. 2012;23(2):64-7.
Galeone G, Spadavecchia R, Balducci MT, Pagliarulo V. The role of Proxelan in the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Results of a randomized trial. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2012 Jun;64(2):135-41.
Samuels N, Grbic JT, Saffer AJ, Wexler ID, Williams RC. Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivitis model: a pilot study. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2012 Mar;33(3):204-6, 208-11.
Grbic J, Wexler I, Celenti R, Altman J, Saffer A. A phase II trial of a transmucosal herbal patch for the treatment of gingivitis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011 Oct;142(10):1168-75.
Forte R, Cennamo G, Finelli ML, Bonavolontà P, de Crecchio G, Greco GM. Combinationof flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for diabetic cystoid macular edema without macular thickening. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Apr;27(2):109-13. doi: 10.1089/jop.2010.0159.
Wang C, Su W, Su X, Ni G, Liu T, Kong Y. Synergy Effects of Three Plant Extracts on Protection of Gastric Mucosa. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Nov;10(11):1989-91.
Paocharoen V. The efficacy and side effects of oral Centella asiatica extract for wound healing promotion in diabetic wound patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Dec;93 Suppl 7:S166-70.
Jana U, Sur TK, Maity LN, Debnath PK, Bhattacharyya D. A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiatica. Nepal Med Coll J. 2010 Mar;12(1):8-11.
Draelos ZD, Gold MH, Kaur M, Olayinka B, Grundy SL, Pappert EJ, Hardas B. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra. Skinmed. 2010 Mar-Apr;8(2):80-6.
Katz M, Levine AA, Kol-Degani H, Kav-Venaki L. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. J Atten Disord. 2010 Nov;14(3):281-91. doi: 10.1177/1087054709356388.
Chiummariello S, De Gado F, Monarca C, Ruggiero M, Carlesimo B, Scuderi N, Alfano C. Multicentric study on a topical compound with lymph-draining action in the treatment of the phlebostatic ulcer of the inferior limbs. G Chir. 2009 Nov-Dec;30(11-12):497-501.
Haftek M, Mac-Mary S, Le Bitoux MA, Creidi P, Seité S, Rougier A, Humbert P. Clinical, biometric and structural evaluation of the long-term effects of a topical treatment with ascorbic acid and madecassoside in photoaged human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2008 Nov;17(11):946-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00732.x.
Wattanathorn J, Mator L, Muchimapura S, Tongun T, Pasuriwong O, Piyawatkul N, Yimtae K, Sripanidkulchai B, Singkhoraard J. Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 5;116(2):325-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.038.
Klövekorn W, Tepe A, Danesch U. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Nov;45(11):583-91.
Sastravaha G, Gassmann G, Sangtherapitikul P, Grimm WD. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts in supportive periodontal therapy. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2005 Jul;7(3):70-9.
Sastravaha G, Yotnuengnit P, Booncong P, Sangtherapitikul P. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts. A preliminary study. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2003 Oct;5(4):106-15.
Tholon L, Neliat G, Chesne C, Saboureau D, Perrier E, Branka JE. An in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo demonstration of the lipolytic effect of slimming liposomes: An unexpected alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonism. J Cosmet Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;53(4):209-18.
Incandela L, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Cesarone MR, De Sanctis MT, Corsi M, Bavera P, Ippolito E, Griffin M, Geroulakos G, Sabetai M, Ramaswami G, Veller M. Modification of the echogenicity of femoral plaques after treatment with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S69-73.
Incandela L, Belcaro G, De Sanctis MT, Cesarone MR, Griffin M, Ippolito E, Bucci M, Cacchio M. Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in the treatment of venous hypertension: a clinical, prospective, randomized trial using a combined microcirculatory model. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S61-7.
De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G, Incandela L, Cesarone MR, Griffin M, Ippolito E, Cacchio M. Treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-ranging trial. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S55-9.
Cesarone MR, Incandela L, De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G, Bavera P, Bucci M, Ippolito E. Evaluation of treatment of diabetic microangiopathy with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical prospective randomized trial with a microcirculatory model. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S49-54.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rulo A, Griffin M, Ricci A, Ippolito E, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L, Bavera P, Cacchio M, Bucci M. Microcirculatory effects of total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous hypertension: measurement by laser Doppler, TcPO2-CO2, and leg volumetry. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S45-8.
Cesarone MR, Incandela L, De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G, Geroulakos G, Griffin M, Lennox A, Di Renzo AD, Cacchio M, Bucci M. Flight microangiopathy in medium- to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S33-7.
Incandela L, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, De Sanctis MT, Nargi E, Patricelli P, Bucci M. Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled randomized study. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S27-31.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Geroulakos G, Bucci M, Dugall M, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L, Griffin M, Sabetai M. Increase in echogenicity of echolucent carotid plaques after treatment with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S19-25.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L, Cacchio M, Bavera P, Ippolito E, Bucci M, Griffin M, Geroulakos G, Dugall M, Buccella S, Kleyweght S, Cacchio M. Effects of the total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in venous hypertensive microangiopathy: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S15-18.
Cataldi A, Gasbarro V, Viaggi R, Soverini R, Gresta E, Mascoli F. Effectiveness of the combination of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus, and centella asiatica in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2001 Apr;49(2):159-63.
Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, Shlik J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Dec;20(6):680-4.
Cesarone MR, Laurora G, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L, Grimaldi R, Marelli C, Belcaro G. The microcirculatory activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency. A double-blind study]. Minerva Cardioangiol. 1994 Jun;42(6):299-304.
Cesarone MR, Laurora G, De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G. Activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency. Minerva Cardioangiol. 1992 Apr;40(4):137-43.
Montecchio GP, Samaden A, Carbone S, Vigotti M, Siragusa S, Piovella F. Centella Asiatica Triterpenic Fraction (CATTF) reduces the number of circulating endothelial cells in subjects with post phlebitic syndrome. Haematologica. 1991 May-Jun;76(3):256-9.
Grimaldi R, De Ponti F, D’Angelo L, Caravaggi M, Guidi G, Lecchini S, Frigo GM, Crema A. Pharmacokinetics of the total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica after single and multiple administrations to healthy volunteers. A new assay for asiatic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Feb;28(2):235-41.
Belcaro GV, Rulo A, Grimaldi R. Capillary filtration and ankle edema in patients with venous hypertension treated with TTFCA. Angiology. 1990 Jan;41(1):12-8.
Pointel JP, Boccalon H, Cloarec M, Ledevehat C, Joubert M. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Angiology. 1987 Jan;38(1 Pt 1):46-50.
Allegra C, Pollari G, Criscuolo A, Bonifacio M, Tabassi D. Centella asiatica extract in venous disorders of the lower limbs. Comparative clinico-instrumental studies with a placebo. Clin Ter. 1981 Dec 15;99(5):507-13.
Haslan H, Suhaimi FH, Das S. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Oct;10(10):1779-84.
Qi Z, Ci X, Huang J, Liu Q, Yu Q, Zhou J, Deng X. Asiatic acid enhances Nrf2 signaling to protect HepG2 cells from oxidative damage through Akt and ERK activation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Apr;88:252-259. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.067.
Chandrika UG, Prasad Kumarab PA. Gotu kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2015;76:125-57. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2015.08.001.
Gray NE, Sampath H, Zweig JA, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Centella asiatica Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(3):933-46. doi: 10.3233/JAD-142217.
Belcaro G, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Ippolito E, Cesarone M, Luzzi R, Cornelli U, Ledda A. Pycnogenol® and Centella Asiatica for asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression. Int Angiol. 2014 Feb;33(1):20-6.
Gray NE, Morré J, Kelley J, Maier CS, Stevens JF, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-β toxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;40(2):359-73. doi: 10.3233/JAD-131913.
Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A. The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jan 20;14:32. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-32.
Bylka W, Znajdek-Awiżeń P, Studzińska-Sroka E, Dańczak-Pazdrowska A, Brzezińska M. Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview. Phytother Res. 2014 Aug;28(8):1117-24. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5110.
Jung E, Lee JA, Shin S, Roh KB, Kim JH, Park D. Madecassoside inhibits melanin synthesis by blocking ultraviolet-induced inflammation. Molecules. 2013 Dec 16;18(12):15724-36. doi: 10.3390/molecules181215724.
Bian D, Zhang J, Wu X, Dou Y, Yang Y, Tan Q, Xia Y, Gong Z, Dai Y. Asiatic acid isolated from Centella asiatica inhibits TGF-β1-induced collagen expression in human keloid fibroblasts via PPAR-γ activation. Int J Biol Sci. 2013 Oct 25;9(10):1032-42. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.7273.
An IS, An S, Kang SM, Choe TB, Lee SN, Jang HH, Bae S. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica provides a UVB protective effect by altering microRNA expression profiles in human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2012 Nov;30(5):1194-202. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2012.1117.
An IS, An S, Choe TΒ, Kang SΜ, Lee JH, Park IC, Jin YW, Lee SJ, Bae S. Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA expression changes. Int J Mol Med. 2012 Dec;30(6):1349-56. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2012.1157.
Temrangsee P, Kondo S, Itharat A. Antibacterial activity of extracts from five medicinal plants and their formula against bacteria that cause chronic wound infection. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011 Dec;94 Suppl 7:S166-71.
James JT, Dubery IA. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the medicinal herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Molecules. 2009 Oct 9;14(10):3922-41. doi: 10.3390/molecules14103922.
Brinkhaus B, Lindner M, Schuppan D, Hahn EG. Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):427-48.
Case Adams is a California Naturopath, board-certified by the American Alternative Medical Association as an Alternative Medical Practitioner, with a Ph.D. in Natural Health Sciences and a degree in Naturopathy. He is a traditional naturopath – not a licensed medical doctor. His focus is upon researching, writing about and authenticating traditional therapies with clinical evidence. He is the author of 26 books on natural health. His books can be found on Heal Naturally – and many are available for immediate download on GreenMedinfo’s book library. Contact Case at email@example.com.
Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of GreenMedInfo or its staff.
Share Our Messages with Love and Gratitude
LOVE US @ MeWe mewe.com/join/lovehaswon
Commentary from The First Contact Ground Crew 5dSpiritual Healing Team:
Feel Blocked, Drained, Fatigued, Restless, Nausea, Achy, Ready to Give Up? We Can Help! We are preparing everyone for a Full Planetary Ascension, and provide you with the tools and techniques to assist you Home Into The Light. The First Contact Ground Crew Team, Will Help to Get You Ready For Ascension which is Underway. New Spiritual Sessions have now been created for an Entire Family, including the Crystal Children; Group Family Healing & Therapy. We have just began these and they are incredible. Highly recommend for any families struggling together in these times of intense changes. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org for more information or to schedule an emergency spiritual session. We can Assist You into Awakening into 5d Reality, where your experience is one of Constant Joy, Wholeness of Being, Whole Health, Balanced, Happy and Abundant. Lets DO THIS! Schedule Your Session Below by following the Link! We are Here in The Highest Love, Honor, and Respect to Be Humanity’s Representatives of The New Paradigm of True Freedom, Abundance, True Equality, A Completely Balanced Being and a Completely Benevolent Society! This is our Destiny as The Old illusion of power over and dysfunction dissolve. Allow us to be of service to You. Visit: https://www.lovehaswon.org/awaken-to-5d/
To read our Testimonials you can follow this link: https://www.lovehaswon.org/testimonials
Connect with MotherGod~Mother of All Creation on Skype @ mothergoddess8
We are a Donation based service for the Planetary Ascension. Thank you for showing your support and keeping our website and Love Energies moving forward! Thanks for supporting your family of light in their time of need to fulfill mission. We are Eternally Grateful!
Donate to Love: https://www.lovehaswon.org/donate-to-love/
Here is our Fund Raising information: https://www.gofundme.com/lovehaswon
LoveHasWon Body Temple Optimization ~ Energy Management Program to MASTER ENERGY, BALANCE THE BODY & FEEL GREAT!
LoveHasWon Water ~ Alkaline Water Solution based on Dr Emoto’s Water Technology & Sacred Geometry: LoveHasWonWater.com
Visit Our Store: https://www.lovehaswon.org/love-has-won-store/
For a Free copy of Our Book (The Tree of Life ~ Light of The Immortals) visit: https://www.lovehaswon.org/tree-of-life-book/