Space Weather Update: 11/11/2016
By Spaceweather.com, 11/11/2016
THE BIGGEST FULL MOON IN ALMOST 70 YEARS: On Monday night, Nov. 14th, there’s going to be a full Moon–the biggest and brightest in almost 70 years. Members of the press are calling it a “supermoon.” The scientific term is “perigee Moon.” These terms mean the same thing: The Moon is going to be as much as 14% bigger and 30% brighter than lesser moons we have seen in the past.
“The last time we had such a close full Moon was January 26, 1948,” says Geoff Chester of the US Naval Observatory, “and it won’t happen again until November 25, 2034.”
Full moons vary in size because the Moon’s orbit is not a circle, it’s an ellipse. One side of the Moon’s orbit (perigee) is 50,000 km closer to Earth than the other side (apogee): diagram. This Monday’s Moon becomes full about 2 hours away from perigee, a coincidence that makes it remarkable.
But will we be able to tell the difference … just by looking? A 30% difference in brightness can easily be masked by clouds or the competing glare of urban lights. Also, there are no rulers floating in the sky to measure lunar diameters. Hanging high overhead with no reference points to provide a sense of scale, one full Moon looks much like any other.
“I think that the hype over the term ‘supermoon’ is a bit overblown,” says Chester. “In my book every full Moon has something to offer!”
To get the most out of Monday’s apparition, Chester makes this recommendation: “Try to catch the Moon just as it is rising.” A perigee Moon magnified by the Moon Illusion could look super, indeed.
MINOR GEOMAGNETIC STORM: As predicted, Earth is entering a stream of solar wind, and this is causing minor G1-class geomagnetic storms on Nov. 11th. B.Art Braafhart sends this picture from Salla in the Finnish Lapland:
“Wow–a fabulous aurora outburst above Salla!” says Braafhart. “It was almost everywhere with purple colours and beautiful shapes.”
More storms are in the offing as Earth moves deeper into the solar wind stream. Arctic sky watchers should be alert for auroras mixed with moonlight on Nov. 11th and 12th.
FLIGHT OF THE SPACE PICKLE: Did you know that cosmic radiation in Earth’s atmosphere is increasing? It’s true. These and other findings of the Earth to Sky Calculus ballooning program are funded not by government grants or corporate donations. Instead, we rely on crowdfunding. Hence, the flight of the space pickle:
To raise funds for their ongoing research, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew two dozen Christmas pickles to the stratosphere. On Nov. 5th, the glass gherkins ascended to an altitude of 111,900 feet, experiencing temperatures as low as -55 C and cosmic ray dose rates more than 100x Earth normal.
You can have one for your own tree. Price: $49.95. All proceeds are used to support cutting-edge student research. The space pickle and other edge of space gifts may be found in the Earth to Sky Store.
All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth’s atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.
On Nov. 11, 2016, the network reported 31 fireballs.
(27 sporadics, 4 Northern Taurids)
In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point–Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]
Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On November 11, 2016 there were 1741 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:Asteroid
Notes: LD means “Lunar Distance.” 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.
Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere
Readers, thank you for your patience while we continue to develop this new section of Spaceweather.com. We’ve been working to streamline our data reduction, allowing us to post results from balloon flights much more rapidly, and we have developed a new data product, shown here:
This plot displays radiation measurements not only in the stratosphere, but also at aviation altitudes. Dose rates are expessed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. These measurements are made by our usual cosmic ray payload as it passes through aviation altitudes en route to the stratosphere over California.
What is this all about? Approximately once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly “down to Earth” form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an increase of more than 12% since 2015:
Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth’s magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.
The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.
The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth’s atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.
speed: 455.9 km/sec
density: 10.7 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1927 UTX-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B1 1335 UT Nov11
24-hr: B1 0913 UT Nov11
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1900 UTDaily Sun: 11 Nov 16Sunspot AR2607 poses no threat for solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI
Sunspot number: 13
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 11 Nov 2016
Current Stretch: 0 days
2016 total: 23 days (7%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
Updated 11 Nov 2016
Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/OvationPlanetary K-index
Now: Kp= 3 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 5 storm
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 9.4 nT
Bz: 6.9 nT north
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1927 UTCoronal Holes: 11 Nov 16
Earth is entering a stream of solar wind flowing from this broad coronal hole. Credit: NASA/SDO.Noctilucent Clouds NASA’s AIM spacecraft has suffered an anomaly, and a software patch is required to fix it. As a result, noctilucent cloud images will not return until further notice. AIM science team members are optimistic that the
Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, PolarUpdated at: 08-06-2016 16:55:02
Updated at: 2016 Nov 10 2200 UTC
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe stormUpdated at: 2016 Nov 10 2200 UTCMid-latitudes